Caregiving Consequences Inventory: A measure for evaluating caregiving consequences from the bereaved family member's perspective

Makiko Sanjo, Tatsuya Morita, Mitsunori Miyashita, Mariko Shiozaki, Kazuki Sato, Kei Hirai, Yasuo Shima, Yosuke Uchitomi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The aims of this study were to validate an instrument for measuring bereaved family members' perceptions of caregiving consequences and to examine the association between caregiving consequences and psychological distress. Methods: Cross-sectional questionnaires were administered to family members of patients who had died in regional cancer centers. We measured the Caregiving Consequences Inventory CCI), respondent's optimism, overall reward scale, and psychological distress and collected background data. A retest was conducted. Results: Bereaved families from two regional cancer centers were surveyed (N=189 and 109; effective response rate, 57 and 80%). By exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we identified four perceived reward domains: 'mastery', 'appreciation for others', 'meaning in life', and 'reprioritization', and one perceived burden domain. Although the four reward domains were highly correlated with each other (0.47<r<0.69), the 4-domain model was superior. The respondents with less education, strong faith, and less optimism reported fewer perceived rewards, thus demonstrating known group validity. In addition, perceived reward had little or no correlation with psychological distress. The psychometric properties of this scale were good α=0.78-0.93, ICC=0.60-0.73) and construct validity was supported (GFI=0.929; AGFI=0.819; CFI=0.749; RMSEA=0.097). Conclusions: The CCI is valid for measuring caregiving consequences from the bereaved family member's perspective in Japan. Furthermore, it is important to use perceived rewards and burdens as a measure of caregiving consequences for improving the quality of the caregiving and bereavement experience. Copyright _rr 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)657-666
Number of pages10
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Burden
  • Caregiver
  • Measures
  • Neoplasms
  • Palliative care
  • Reward

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Oncology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Caregiving Consequences Inventory: A measure for evaluating caregiving consequences from the bereaved family member's perspective'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this