Candida biome of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and its cariogenic virulence traits

Kausar Sadia Fakhruddin, Lakshman Perera Samaranayake, Hiroshi Egusa, Hien Chi Ngo, Chamila Panduwawala, Thenmozhi Venkatachalam, Allagappan Kumarappan, Siripen Pesee

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11 Citations (Scopus)


The protected niche of deep-caries lesions is a distinctive ecosystem. We assessed the Candida biome and its cariogenic traits from dentin samples of 50 children with severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC). Asymptomatic, primary molars belonging to International Caries Detection and Assessment-ICDAS caries-code 5 and 6 were analyzed, and C. albicans (10-isolates), C. tropicalis (10), C. krusei (10), and C. glabrata (5) isolated from the lesions were then evaluated for their biofilm formation, acidogenicity, and the production of secreted hydrolases: hemolysins, phospholipase, proteinase and DNase. Candida were isolated from 14/43 ICDAS-5 lesions (32.5%) and 44/57 ICDAS-6 lesions (77.2%). Compared to, ICDAS-5, a significantly higher frequency of multi-species infestation was observed in ICDAS-6 lesions (p=0.001). All four candidal species (above) showed prolific biofilm growth, and an equal potency for tooth demineralization. A significant interspecies difference in the mean phospholipase, as well as proteinase activity was noted (p < 0.05), with C. albicans being the predominant hydrolase producer. Further, a positive correlation between phospholipase and proteinase activity of Candida-isolates was noted (r = 0.818, p < 0.001). Our data suggest that candidal mycobiota with their potent cariogenic traits may significantly contribute to the development and progression of S-ECC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1724484
JournalJournal of Oral Microbiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan 1


  • Candida species
  • acidogenicity
  • biofilm
  • calcium-release
  • dentin caries
  • haemolysin
  • hydrolases
  • phopholipase
  • protease
  • severe early childhood caries (S-ECC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry (miscellaneous)
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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