C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) belongs to the family of CXC chemokines. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammation-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, and in recent years, stimulatory effects of CXCL12 on bone resorption have also been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CXCL12 on LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. LPS was administered with or without CXCL12 onto mouse calvariae by daily subcutaneous injection. Numbers of osteoclasts and bone resorption were significantly elevated in mice co-administered LPS and CXCL12 compared with mice administered LPS alone. Moreover, receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA levels were higher in mice co-administered LPS and CXCL12 compared with mice administered LPS alone. These in vitro results confirmed a direct stimulatory effect of CXCL12 on RANKL- and TNF-α-induced osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, TNF-α and RANKL mRNA levels were elevated in macrophages and osteoblasts, respectively, co-treated in vitro with CXCL12 and LPS, in comparison with cells treated with LPS alone. Our results suggest that CXCL12 enhances LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in vivo through a combination of increasing LPS-induced TNF-α production by macrophages, increasing RANKL production by osteoblasts, and direct enhancement of osteoclastogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine