Cloning of cDNAs encoding bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs)-C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) precursor or its homologue was performed for cDNA libraries of Bothrops jararaca (South American snake), Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Trimeresurus gramineus and Agkistrodon halys blomhoffi (Asian snakes), all belonging to Crotalinae subfamily. Each cDNA library was constructed from the venom glands of a single snake to preclude ambiguity by intraspecies variation in venom components. Thirteen positive clones derived from B. jararaca were divided into two types depending on restriction sites. Differences in the nucleotide sequence arise at three locations and two of them accompanied amino acid conversions. Despite the differences, both types of cDNA clones encode the BPP-CNP precursor of 256 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis demonstrated that cDNA clones from three Asian snakes encode homologues of the BPP-CNP precursor from B. jararaca. In a precursor polypeptide, a signal sequence (~25 aa) at the N-terminus is followed by sequences of BPP or the analogue (5-13 aa) with flanking spacer sequences (indefinite number of aa), an intervening linker sequence (~100 aa) with unidentified function, and a CNP sequence (22 aa) with a preceding processing signal sequence (10 aa). cDNA clones from A. halys blomhoffi encode two distinct peptides in place of BPP, and T. flavoviridis and T. gramineus were shown to have considerably different sequences in the BPP domain from those known as BPP sequences. The present results provide evidence for a wide distribution of the orthologous gene expressing a series of bioactive peptides among Crotalinae subfamily. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.
- Bradykinin potentiating peptide
- DNA sequence analysis
- Natriuretic peptide
- Snake venom
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