Body Pitch Together With Translational Body Motion Biases the Subjective Haptic Vertical

Chia Huei Tseng, Hiu Mei Chow, Lothar Spillmann, Matt Oxner, Kenzo Sakurai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Accurate perception of verticality is critical for postural maintenance and successful physical interaction with the world. Although previous research has examined the independent influences of body orientation and self-motion under well-controlled laboratory conditions, these factors are constantly changing and interacting in the real world. In this study, we examine the subjective haptic vertical in a real-world scenario. Here, we report a bias of verticality perception in a field experiment on the Hong Kong Peak Tram as participants traveled on a slope ranging from 6 to 26. Mean subjective haptic vertical (SHV) increased with slope by as much as 15 , regardless of whether the eyes were open (Experiment 1) or closed (Experiment 2). Shifting the body pitch by a fixed degree in an effort to compensate for the mountain slope failed to reduce the verticality bias (Experiment 3). These manipulations separately rule out visual and vestibular inputs about absolute body pitch as contributors to our observed bias. Observations collected on a tram traveling on level ground (Experiment 4A) or in a static dental chair with a range of inclinations similar to those encountered on the mountain tram (Experiment 4B) showed no significant deviation of the subjective vertical from gravity. We conclude that the SHV error is due to a combination of large, dynamic body pitch and translational motion. These observations made in a real-world scenario represent an incentive to neuroscientists and aviation experts alike for studying perceived verticality under field conditions and raising awareness of dangerous misperceptions of verticality when body pitch and translational self-motion come together.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-29
Number of pages29
JournalMultisensory Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • body pitch
  • mountain slope
  • self-motion
  • subjective haptic vertical

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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