Body mass index and the risk of incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: The OHSAKI Cohort 2006 Study

Shu Zhang, Yasutake Tomata, Kemmyo Sugiyama, Yu Kaiho, Kenji Honkura, Takashi Watanabe, Fumiya Tanji, Yumi Sugawara, Ichiro Tsuji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and the incidence of cause-specific disability remains unclear. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 12,376 Japanese individuals aged ≥65 years who were followed up for 5.7 years. Information on BMI and other lifestyle factors was collected via a questionnaire in 2006. Functional disability data were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database. BMI was divided into 6 groups (<21, 21-<23, 23-<25, 25-<27[reference], 27-<29 and ≥29). Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cause-specific disability were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. A U-shaped relationship between BMI and functional disability was observed, with a nadir at 26. The nadir BMI values with the lowest disability risk were 28 for dementia, 25 for stroke, and 23 for joint disease. A low BMI (<23) was a risk factor for disability due to dementia, the HR values (95% CI) being 2.48 (1.70-3.63) for BMI <21 and 2.25 (1.54-3.27) for BMI 21 to <23; a high BMI (≥29) was a risk factor for disability due to joint disease, the HR value (95% CI) being 2.17 (1.40-3.35). There was no significant relationship between BMI and disability due to stroke. The BMI nadirs for cause-specific disability differed: a low BMI (<23) was a risk factor for disability due to dementia, and a high BMI (≥29) was a risk factor for disability due to joint disease. Because BMI values of 23 to <29 did not pose a significantly higher risk for each cause of disability, this range should be regarded as the optimal one for the elderly population.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere4452
JournalMedicine (United States)
Volume95
Issue number31
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Aug 1

Keywords

  • body mass index
  • cause-specific disability
  • elderly people
  • ideal BMI range
  • incident disability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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