Bladder tamponade due to hemorrhagic cystitis caused by BK virus in immunocompetent patients is familiar to urologists. BK virus is an important cause of nephropathy and graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Although urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in kidney transplant recipients with persistent BK viruria is known, BK virus-associated urothelial carcinoma (BKVUC) in peripheral blood stem cell transplantation recipients is not as well known. A 54-year-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukemia was treated in the Department of Hematology of our hospital. After recurrence 25 months later, he received chemotherapy for half a year and underwent peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. He achieved temporarily complete remission, but he developed hematuria with BK virus-positive result 1 month after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. One month later, he developed bladder tamponade-diagnosed hemorrhagic cystitis due to BK virus in our Urological Department. We performed transurethral coagulation to manage hemorrhage and removed a bleeding lesion in the bladder wall. Pathological examination of the removed bladder wall revealed pT1 stage BKVUC. We found that bladder tamponade could have led to reactivation of BK virus in this immunocompetent patient. This could be the first report of BKVUC of the bladder found in a peripheral blood stem cell transplantation recipient with close urological follow-up for 24 months. Adequate removal of bleeding lesions from the bladder mucosa with appropriate timing during hemorrhagic cystitis due to BKVUC could be essential to achieve good outcomes.
- BK virus
- Hemorrhagic cystitis
- Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
- Urothelial carcinoma
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