Biological organic carbon export estimated from the annual carbon budget observed in the surface waters of the western subarctic and subtropical North Pacific Ocean from 2004 to 2013

Masahide Wakita, Makio C. Honda, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Tetsuichi Fujiki, Hajime Kawakami, Sayaka Yasunaka, Yoshikazu Sasai, Chiho Sukigara, Mario Uchimiya, Minoru Kitamura, Toru Kobari, Yoshihisa Mino, Akira Nagano, Shuichi Watanabe, Toshiro Saino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The annual flux of biologically produced organic carbon from surface waters is equivalent to annual net community production (NCP) at a steady state and equals the export of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively) to the ocean interior. NCP was estimated from carbon budgets of salinity-normalized dissolved inorganic carbon (nDIC) inventories at two time-series stations in the western subarctic (K2) and subtropical (S1) North Pacific Ocean. By using quasi-monthly biogeochemical observations from 2004 to 2013, monthly mean nDIC inventories were integrated from the surface to the annual maximum mixed layer depth and corrected for changes due to net air–sea CO2 exchange, net CaCO3 production, vertical diffusion from the upper thermocline, and horizontal advection. The annual organic carbon flux at K2 (1.49 ± 0.42 mol m−2 year−1) was lower than S1 (2.81 ± 0.53 mol m−2 year−1) (p < 0.001 based on t test). These fluxes consist of three components: vertically exported POC fluxes (K2: 1.43 mol m−2 year−1; S1: 2.49 mol m−2 year−1), vertical diffusive DOC fluxes (K2: 0.03 mol m−2 year−1; S1: 0.25 mol m−2 year−1), and suspended POC fluxes (K2: 0.03 mol m−2 year−1; S1: 0.07 mol m−2 year−1). The estimated POC export flux at K2 was comparable to the sum of the POC flux observed with drifting sediment traps and active carbon flux exported by migrating zooplankton. The export fluxes at both stations were higher than those reported at other time-series sites (ALOHA, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study, and Ocean Station Papa).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)665-685
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Oceanography
Volume72
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Oct 1
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Annual flux of biologically produced organic and inorganic carbon
  • Carbon cycle
  • Dissolved inorganic carbon
  • Dissolved organic carbon
  • Particulate inorganic carbon
  • Particulate organic carbon
  • Redfield stoichiometry
  • Time-series observation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography

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