Benchmark of quantum-inspired heuristic solvers for quadratic unconstrained binary optimization

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8 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, inspired by quantum annealing, many solvers specialized for unconstrained binary quadratic programming problems have been developed. For further improvement and application of these solvers, it is important to clarify the differences in their performance for various types of problems. In this study, the performance of four quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problem solvers, namely D-Wave Hybrid Solver Service (HSS), Toshiba Simulated Bifurcation Machine (SBM), Fujitsu Digital Annealer (DA), and simulated annealing on a personal computer, was benchmarked. The problems used for benchmarking were instances of real problems in MQLib, instances of the SAT-UNSAT phase transition point of random not-all-equal 3-SAT (NAE 3-SAT), and the Ising spin glass Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model. Concerning MQLib instances, the HSS performance ranked first; for NAE 3-SAT, DA performance ranked first; and regarding the SK model, SBM performance ranked first. These results may help understand the strengths and weaknesses of these solvers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2146
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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