Basaloid-squamous carcinoma (BSC) of the esophagus is a rare but interesting neoplasm that occurs primarily in the upper aerodigestive tract. In this study, we reviewed 371 cases of esophageal malignancies and detected seven cases (1.9%) of BSC. The clinicopathologic features, light and electron microscopic findings, and immunohistochemical localization of various differentiation-related antigens, including cytokeratin (CK) subtypes, p53, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), were examined. DNA ploidy was also determined in an effort to characterize the biologic features of these tumors. The tumors were classified as stage I (n = 1), IIB (n = 3, III (n = 2), or IV (n = 1). Six patients had lymph node metastasis, in four the metastatic carcinoma exhibited basaloid components. Histologically, all the tumors displayed a biphasic pattern of basaloid and squamous components. The former predominated in three cases, the latter in four cases. All the tumors contained solid growth of basaloid cells with microcystic patterns and stromal hyalinosis as well as palisading of cells. Ultrastructurally, markedly replicated basement membrane was observed. Immunohistochemistry revealed staining with only CK 14 and CK 19 antibodies in the periphery of the basaloid tumor nests. These antibodies were also positive in the basal layer of normal esophagus. Diffuse immunoreactivity for EGFR was demonstrated in all the tumors. Five tumors displayed p53 nuclear immunoreactivity. All of the basaloid components demonstrated aneuploidy by DNA image cytometry. We conclude that BSC is a distinct type of esophageal carcinoma that should be differentiated from the usual types of esophageal carcinoma and may be associated with aggressive biologic behavior.
- DNA ploidy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine