Bad, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, plays a critical role in determining cell death/survival. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway are thought to be involved in regulation of Bad. Therefore, the present study was performed to clarify the role of Bad as a common target of the PI3-K/Akt and JNK pathways after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI) in rats. We found that Akt activity increased at 3 h and then decreased, whereas JNK activity increased 7 to 24 h in the peripheral area after tFCI. Administration of LY294002, a PI3-K-specific inhibitor, exacerbated DNA fragmentation, whereas administration of SP600125, a JNK-specific inhibitor, attenuated it. Inhibited by LY294002, phospho-Bad (Ser136) expression increased in the peripheral area 3 h after tFCI, with suppression of Akt activity. Furthermore, phospho-Bad (Ser136) and phospho-Akt (Ser473) were colocalized. Decreases in phospho-Bad (Ser136) and Bad/14-3-3 dimerization and increases in Bcl-XL/Bad or Bcl-2/Bad dimerization observed 7 to 24 h after tFCI, were prevented by SP600125 administration, with inhibition of JNK activity. The present study indicates that signal predominance varies from PI3-K/Akt-mediated survival signaling to JNK-mediated death signaling with the development of neuronal damage in the peripheral area after tFCI. This study also suggests that PI3-K/Akt has a role in Bad inactivation, whereas the JNK pathway is involved in Bad activation. We conclude that Bad may be an integrated checkpoint of PI3-K/Akt-mediated survival signaling and JNK-mediated death signaling and that it contributes to cell fate in the peripheral area after cerebral ischemia.
- Cerebral ischemia
- Signal balance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine