Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a recently recognized distinct entity and the most common type of non-B cell extranodal lymphoma in Asia. This retrospective analysis studied the potential survival benefits of hematopoeitic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) compared with a historical control group. A total of 47 patients from 3 previously published series of HSCT were matched according to NK/T cell lymphoma International Prognostic Index (NKIPI) risk groups and disease status at transplantation with 107 patients from a historical control group for analysis. After a median follow-up of 116.5 months, the median survival time was not determined for the HSCT group, but it was 43.5 months for the control group (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.7 to 80.3 months; P = .127, log-rank test). In patients who were in complete remission (CR) at the time of HSCT or at surveillance after remission, disease-specific survival rates were significantly higher in the HSCT group compared with the control group (disease-specific 5-year survival rate, 87.3% for HSCT vs 67.8% for non-HSCT; P = .027). In contrast, in subgroup analysis on non-CR patients at the time of HSCT or non-HSCT treatment, disease-specific survival rates were not significantly prolonged in the HSCT group compared with the control group (1-year survival rate, 66.7% for HSCT vs 28.6% for non-HSCT; P = .141). The impact of HSCT on the survival of all patients was significantly retained at the multivariate level with a 2.1-fold (95% CI =1.2- to 3.7-fold) reduced risk of death (P = .006). HSCT seems to confer a survival benefit in patients who attained CR on postremission consolidation therapy. These findings suggest that, in particular, patients in CR with high NKIPI risk scores at diagnosis should receive full consideration for HSCT.
- NK/T-cell lymphoma
- autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
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