We visualize the antisite exchange defects in LiFePO4 crystals with an ordered olivine structure by using annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A recognizable bright contrast is observed in some of the Li columns of STEM images in a sample annealed at a lower temperature, which directly demonstrates the disordered occupations by Fe atoms. Furthermore, such exchange defects appear to be locally aggregated rather than homogeneously dispersed in the lattice, although their overall concentration is fairly low. The present study emphasizes the significance of atomic-level observations for the defect distribution that cannot be predicted by macroscopic analytical methods.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)