Background: Some studies in Western countries have suggested that education and income are differentially associated with different drinking patterns. This study aimed to examine the associations of education and income with heavy drinking and problem drinking among community-dwelling Japanese men. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in metropolitan areas in Japan from 2010 to 2011 among residents aged 25 to 50 years; valid responses were received from 2004 men. Drinking patterns were categorized as non-to-moderate drinking, non-problematic heavy drinking, and problem drinking. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether educational attainment or income was associated with drinking patterns, after adjustment for age, marital status, working status, income/education, self-rated health, and psychological distress. Results: The study population included 84.4% non-to-moderate drinkers, 8.9% non-problematic heavy drinkers, and 6.7% problem drinkers. Lower educational attainment (high school or less) was significantly associated with increased risks of both non-problematic heavy drinking (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-2.67) and problem drinking (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.34-3.16), compared with university education or higher. Lower income (lowest tertile) was significantly associated with a lower risk of non-problematic heavy drinking (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.43-1.00), but not of problem drinking (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50-1.30), compared with the highest income tertile. Conclusions: These findings indicate that education and income are differentially associated with alcohol drinking patterns among community-dwelling Japanese men.
- General population
- Heavy drinking
- Problem drinking
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health