Methimazole (MMI) has been reported to affect prognosis in hyperthyroid Graves' disease patients treated with radioiodine (131I). In the present study, serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were measured serially for I year in patients with Graves' disease after 131I treatment either given alone (group 1, 41 patients) or followed by an antithyroid drug (group 2, 19 patients). The effect of antithyroid drugs on these parameters was analyzed retrospectively. Mean serum concentrations of T4 and T3 both decreased to normal within 3 months after 131I treatment in both groups. Serum Tg concentrations in group I showed significant transient increases (about four times the basal value) I month after 131I administration. Titers of TBII, TgAb, and TPOAb in group 1 also increased transiently after 131I treatment, with the maximum increase at 3 months. Antithyroid drugs significantly lessened 131I-induced increases in serum concentrations of Tg and all thyroid autoantibodies tested. One year after 131I treatment, 33 of 41 patients (80%) were euthyroid or hypothyroid in group 1; this was true for only 4 of 19 group II patients (22%). The results indicate that administering antithyroid drugs after 131I treatment reduced 131I-induced damage to the thyroid and reduced therapeutic efficacy of 131I in hyperthyroidism. Drug treatment also inhibited release of Tg and blunted 131I-induced increases in titers of thyroid autoantibodies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism