No remedies for prion disease have been established, and the conversion of normal to abnormal prion protein, a key event in prion disease, is still unclear. Here we found that substances in beetle grub hemolymph, after they were browned by aging for a month or heating for hours, reduced abnormal prion protein (PrP) levels in RML prion-infected cells. Active anti-prion components in the hemolymph were resistant to protease treatment and had molecular weights larger than 100. kDa. Aminoguanidine treatment of the hemolymph abolished its anti-prion activity, suggesting that Maillard reaction products are enrolled in the activity against the RML prion. However, levels of abnormal PrP in RML prion-infected cells were not decreased by incubation with the Maillard reaction products formed by amino acids or bovine serum albumin. The anti-prion components in the hemolymph modified neither cellular or cell-surface PrP levels nor lipid raft or autophagosome levels. The anti-prion activity was not observed in cells infected with 22. L prion or Fukuoka-1 prion, suggesting the anti-prion action is prion strain-dependent. Although the active components of the hemolymph need to be further evaluated, the present findings imply that certain specific chemical structures in the hemolymph, but not chemical structures common to all Maillard reaction products, are involved in RML prion formation or turnover, without modifying normal PrP expression. The anti-prion components in the hemolymph are a new tool for elucidating strain-dependent prion biology.
- Advanced glycation end product
- Insect hemolymph
- Maillard reaction product
- Strain dependency
ASJC Scopus subject areas