PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Angiotensin II regulates vasoconstriction, homeostasis of salt and water, and cardiovascular hypertrophy and remodeling. Angiotensin II is a potent activator of NAD(P)H oxidase in the cardiovascular system, and augments production of reactive oxygen species. Numerous signaling pathways in response to angiotensin II are mediated by reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress is deeply associated with the progression of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss the mechanism of reactive oxygen species formation and the pathophysiological effects of angiotensin II in the cardiovascular system. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated novel molecular mechanisms of reactive oxygen species generation by angiotensin II and signaling pathways including cell proliferation, hypertrophy and apoptosis. In spite of these findings that strongly suggest the benefits of angiotensin II inhibition for cardiovascular disease, the clinical effects of angiotensin II-induced reactive oxygen species on the cardiovascular system are still controversial. SUMMARY: We focus on the effects of angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress on cardiovascular function and remodeling after discussing the source of reactive oxygen species and novel signaling pathways in response to reactive oxygen species.
- Angiotensin II
- Cardiovascular disease
- Oxidative stress
- Vascular inflammation and remodeling
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine