Anatomy and biomechanics of the shoulder

Andreas M. Halder, Eijii Itoi, Kai Nan An

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

90 Citations (Scopus)


The anatomies and biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint and the scapulothoracic articulation are the subjects of this article. The anatomies of bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles are described in detail, and current biomechanical concepts concerning motion, stability, and force are presented. Morphologic and biomechanical changes in pathologic conditions briefly are described.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-176
Number of pages18
JournalOrthopedic Clinics of North America
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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