An output regulation model has been developed to represent the human operator’s input adaptability in the manual control system according to the internal model principle. In the experiments, some remarkable phenomena have been derived from the operator’s open-loop frequency response when a random exponential signal generated by a quite simple linear system has been used as a reference input. These phenomena cannot be described by any usual isomorphic models. As the parameter included in the reference input generator has changed, these phenomena have changed their features in such a complicated manner that usual interpretations of human input adaptability are no longer useful. In this paper, it has been shown that the phenomena are closely related to the inherent dead time included in the human operator and can be represented systematically by introducing an algorithmic model that realizes output regulation with internal stability for linear systems with a dead time.
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