Sodic alteration assemblages including clinoptilolite, mordenite, analcime and Na-montmorillonite were locally observed in sediments in the eastern part of the Hachimantai geothermal region, northeast Japan. This study investigated the mechanisms of sodic enrichment in the sediments during alteration. Kinetic results for water/rock interaction experiments are reported here. Batch-type experiments were conducted at 150-250°C under saturated vapor pressure. Pyroclastic rocks dissolved incongruently in these experiments, and the solubility and dissolution rates among elements varied as follows: the apparent steady-state concentrations of major elements are Si > Na ≫ K > Ca > Al and the order of the dissolution rates is Si > Al > Na ≫ K > Ca. Na had the highest steady-state concentration and fastest dissolution rate of the alkali and alkali earth metal ions. Based on surface analysis of plagioclase, dissolution was effected via a reaction layer of Na-montmorillonite on the mineral surface. Additionally, a reaction model constructed based on the experimentally observed reaction mechanism quantitatively explains the dissolution behavior. These results show that Na-montmorillonite can be precipitated by pyroclastic rock/meteoric water interactions without seawater involvement: the Na is derived from the host rocks.
- Dissolution mechanism
- Na-alteration mineral
- Reaction layer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)