An asynchronous FPGA based on LEDR/4-phase-dual-rail hybrid architecture

Shota Ishihara, Yoshiya Komatsu, Masanori Hariyama, Michitaka Kameyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This paper presents an asynchronous FPGA that combines 4-phase dual-rail encoding and LEDR (Level-Encoded Dual-Rail) encoding. 4-phase dual-rail encoding is employed to achieve small area and low power for function units, while LEDR encoding is employed to achieve high throughput and low power for the data transfer using programmable interconnection resources. Area-efficient protocol converters and their control circuits are also proposed in transistor-level implementation. The proposed FPGA is designed using the e-Shuttle 65nm CMOS process. Compared to the 4-phase-dual-rail-based FPGA, the throughput is increased by 69% with almost the same transistor count. Compared to the LEDR-based FPGA, the transistor count is reduced by 47% with almost the same throughput. In terms of power consumption, the proposed FPGA achieves the lowest power compared to the 4-phase-dual-rail-based and the LEDR-based FPGAs. Compared to the synchronous FPGA, the proposed FPGA has lower power consumption when the workload is below 35%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1338-1348
Number of pages11
JournalIEICE Transactions on Electronics
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Aug


  • 4-phase dual-rail encoding
  • Field-programmable VLSI
  • LEDR (Level-Encoded Dual-Rail) encoding
  • Reconfigurable VLSI
  • Self-timed architecture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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