Amyloid imaging and biomarkers in MCI and Alzheimer's disease

Katsutoshi Furukawa, Nobuyuki Okamura, Manabu Tashiro, Shozo Furumoto, Ren Iwata, Kazuhiko Yanai, Yukitsuka Kudo, Hiroyuki Arai

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Biomarkers for early and accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been paid great attention over the past several years. Alzheimer's Disease NeuroImaging Initiative (ADNI), which follows up precise and longitudinal changes in biomarkers, has begun in the USA, Europe, Australia and Japan, and there have been several important findings [1]. Quite a few studies and projects including ADNI revealed that amyloid β (Aβ) should be one of the most important biomarkers of AD. Accumulation and distribution of Aβ in the brain and the measurement of its concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid can be analyzed by imaging techniques using positron emission tomography (PET) and ELISA, respectively. An amyloid imaging modlity using a novel PET tracer was developed by Klunk et al. in 2004 [2]. Since then some of the investigators including us have released new amyloid tracers. Our group recently developed a novel PET tracer, 11C-labeled 2-(2-[2-dimethylaminothiazol- 5-yl] ethenyl) -6- (2- [fluoro]ethoxy) benzoxazole ([11C]BF-227), and succeeded in in vivo detection of amyloid plaques in the AD brains [3,4]. Needless to say, biomarkers in biofluid now also play important roles in the diagnosis of AD. Our group for the first time in the world reported that tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is elevated in AD patients compared to normal controls and other neurological diseases [5]. In addition to tau, Aβ (especially Aβ1-42) in CSF is a sensitive and specific biomarker of AD. Both the elevated total-tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) and the decreased Aβ1-42 in CSF can distinguish not only AD from normal controls but also can discriminate between the subjects with mild cognitive impairment who convert to AD later (MCI-converters) and the ones with MCI who do not convert to AD (MCI-non-converters) while they are in the MCI stage [6]. It has been reported that Aβ1-42 in CSF and amyloid PET show a change in the pathological process of AD earliest among the biomarkers, therefore these are considered to be the most sensitive ones for the early diagnosis of AD [6].

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAmyloids
Subtitle of host publicationComposition, Functions and Pathology
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Pages231-240
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9781621005384
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Aug

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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