Adrenomedullin (AM) is a multifunctional regulatory peptide that is produced and secreted by various types of cells. We showed the presence of high concentrations of adrenomedullin-immunoreactivity in the vitreous fluid, and the levels were elevated in patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Furthermore, adrenomedullin mRNA expression levels were elevated in the tissues of intraocular tumors and orbital tumors. Adrenomedullin is produced and secreted by cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Inflammatory cytokines and hypoxia are strong stimulators for the adrenomedullin expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Adrenomedullin stimulated the proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial cells both under normoxia and hypoxia. Dexamethasone (DEX) increased the adrenomedullin expression in two cultured cell lines of human retinal pigment epithelial cells; ARPE-19 cells and D407 cells, while it had no noticeable effects on the cytokine-induced adrenomedullin expression. These findings suggest that adrenomedullin is involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and neoplastic eye diseases as an autocrine or paracrine growth stimulator. The findings on glucocorticoid-induced AM expression raise the possibility that it may be related to the pathogenesis of some eye diseases, such as central serous chorioretinopathy and multifocal posterior pigment epitheliopathy, which are frequently seen in patients treated with high doses of glucocorticoids.
- Pigment epithelium
- Proliferative vitreoretinopathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience