A quantitative and qualitative change in inflammatory cells in the lungs of mice after intratracheal inoculation of heat-killed Cryptococcus neoformans was examined by direct analysis of the pulmonary intraparenchymal leucocytes. Macrophages and T and B lymphocytes increased, peaked at day 7, and then gradually decreased to the basal level. Macrophages were activated 7 days after the inoculation, as indicated by the enhanced expression of MHC class II, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Fc receptor (FcR), which have been known as their activation markers. T cells were also activated, as indicated by the induction of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and the enhanced expression of leucocyte function-associated molecule-1 (LFA-1) and ICAM-1, a pair of adhesion molecules which have also been regarded as T cell activation markers. CD4+ T cells preferentially accumulated in lungs, and proliferated in vitro by stimulation with heat-killed whole yeast cells, suggesting that at least some of the infiltrated T cells expand locally in response to the organisms. These results demonstrate that the activation of macrophages and T cells reactive to C. neoformans is induced in lungs after intratracheal inoculation of heat-killed organisms, and suggest that these cells interact to eliminate organisms more efficiently from the host.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Clinical and Experimental Immunology|
|Publication status||Published - 1994 Jan 1|
- Cryptococcus neoformans
- T cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy