mDia1, a Rho effector, belongs to the Formin family of proteins, which shares the conserved tandem FH1-FH2 unit structure. Formins including mDia1 accelerate actin nucleation while interacting with actin filament fast-growing ends. Here our single-molecule imaging revealed fast directional movement of mDia1 FH1-FH2 for tens of microns in living cells. The movement of mDia1 FH1-FH2 was blocked by actin-perturbing drugs, and the speed of mDia1 FH1-FH2 movement appeared to correlate with actin elongation rates. In vitro, mDia1 FH1-FH2 associated persistently with the growing actin barbed end. mDia1 probably moves processively along the growing end of actin filaments in cells, and Formins may be a molecular motility machinery that is independent from motor proteins.
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