Acoustic features contributing to the individuality of wild agile gibbon (Hylobates agilis agilis) songs

Chisako Oyakawa, Hiroki Koda, Hideki Sugiura

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    31 Citations (Scopus)


    We examined acoustic individuality in wild agile gibbon Hylobates agilis agilis and determined the acoustic variables that contribute to individual discrimination using multivariate analyses. We recorded 125 female-specific songs (great calls) from six groups in west Sumatra and measured 58 acoustic variables for each great call. We performed principal component analysis to summarize the 58 variables into six acoustic principal components (PCs). Generally, each PC corresponded to a part of the great call. Significant individual differences were found across six individual gibbons in each of the six PCs. Moreover, strong acoustic individuality was found in the introductory and climax parts of the great call. In contrast, the terminal part contributed little to individual identification. Discriminant analysis showed that these PCs contributed to individual discrimination with high repeatability. Although we cannot conclude that agile gibbon use these acoustic components for individual discrimination, they are potential candidates for individual recognition.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)777-790
    Number of pages14
    JournalAmerican Journal of Primatology
    Issue number7
    Publication statusPublished - 2007 Jul 1


    • Acoustic individuality
    • Hylobates agilis agilis
    • Principal component analysis
    • Song
    • Variance component

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
    • Animal Science and Zoology


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