The adverse effect of Ti on body-defense macrophage is not well understood. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the intracellular accumulation of Ti element; and (2) to measure the cell viability, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) production, and TNF-α secretion of macrophage-like RAW264 cells cultured for two days in medium with 1 ppm Ti prepared from acidic ICP Ti standard solution. PIXE analysis showed that element Ti was accumulated up to 7.3 ppm in RAW264 cells when cultured in the medium with 1 ppm Ti. Further, RAW264 cells cultured in the medium with 1 ppm Ti exhibited cell viability of about 60%, SOD production of about 180%, and TNF-α secretion of about 170% relative to those of control cells cultured in the medium without Ti. It was speculated that phagocytosis of minute Ti-containing complex (mostly TiO 2) by macrophage caused oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction, leading to cell proliferation arrest and increased production of SOD and TNF-α.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ceramics and Composites