Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes (CCDSs) are caused by loss-of-function mutations in creatine transporter (CRT, SLC6A8), which transports creatine at the blood-brain barrier and into neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). This results in low cerebral creatine levels, and patients exhibit mental retardation, poor language skills and epilepsy. We identified a novel human CRT gene missense mutation (c.1681 G>C, G561R) in Japanese CCDSs patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the reduction of creatine transport in G561R-mutant CRT-expressing 293 cells, and to clarify the mechanism of its functional attenuation. G561R-mutant CRT exhibited greatly reduced creatine transport activity compared to wildtype CRT (WT-CRT) when expressed in 293 cells. Also, the mutant protein is localized mainly in intracellular membrane fraction, while WT-CRT is localized in plasma membrane. Western blot analysis revealed a 68 kDa band of WT-CRT protein in plasma membrane fraction, while G561R-mutant CRT protein predominantly showed bands at 55, 110 and 165 kDa in crude membrane fraction. The bands of both WT-CRT and G561R-mutant CRT were shifted to 50 kDa by N-glycosidase treatment. Our results suggest that the functional impairment of G561R-mutant CRT was probably caused by incomplete N-linked glycosylation due to misfolding during protein maturation, leading to oligomer formation and changes of cellular localization.
- Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes
- Creatine transporter
- N-linked glycosylation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science