A Tangled Web of 12 Lens Laws

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)


Bidirectional transformation has played important roles in broad areas, database management, programming language, and model-driven development after Foster et al. revisited view updating problems introduced by Bancilhon and Spyratos. They introduced the concept of (asymmetric) lens as a pair of a forward get and a backward put functions to synchronize a source data and its view consistently. For the get and put functions to be consistent, they should satisfy several lens laws such as the (StrongGetPut), (GetPut), (PutGet) and (PutPut) laws. By combining some of these lens laws, we can represent how consistent a lens satisfying the laws is. Fischer et al. has introduced nine meaningful weaker lens laws to give a “clear picture” of the laws where they show relations among lens laws, for example, that one law implies another and combination of two laws is equivalent to combination of the other three laws. This paper gives more precise relationship among 12 lens laws that have been presented in literature. The relationship makes an intertwined implication diagram like a tangled web. The results can be used for easily verifying the desirable lens laws.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationReversible Computation 13th International - 13th International Conference, RC 2021, Proceedings
EditorsShigeru Yamashita, Tetsuo Yokoyama
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages19
ISBN (Print)9783030798369
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event13th International Conference on Reversible Computation, RC 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 2021 Jul 72021 Jul 8

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12805 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference13th International Conference on Reversible Computation, RC 2021
CityVirtual, Online


  • Asymmetric lens laws
  • Bidirectional transformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)


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