A Susceptible Period of Photic Day-Night Rhythm Loss in Common Marmoset Social Behavior Development

Mamiko Koshiba, Aya Watarai-Senoo, Genta Karino, Shimpei Ozawa, Yoshimasa Kamei, Yoshiko Honda, Ikuko Tanaka, Tohru Kodama, Setsuo Usui, Hironobu Tokuno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The prevalence of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as pervasive developmental disorders is rapidly increasing worldwide. Although these developmental disorders are known to be influenced by an individual’s genetic background, the potential biological responses to early life’s environmental exposure to both physical and psychological factors must also be considered. Many studies have acknowledged the influence of shorter time for rest at night and the simultaneous occurrence of various kinds of complications involving developmental disorders. In a prior study, we examined how a common marmoset’s (Callithrix jacchus) psychosocial development was affected when it was reared under constant daylight from birth and then reared individually by humans nursing them under constant light (LL) during their juvenile development stages. The behaviors of these marmosets were compared with those of normal day-night cycle (LD) marmosets using a multivariate analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA). That study found that LL marmosets relatively elicited egg-like calls (Ecall) and side-to-side shakes of the upper body with rapid head rotation through adulthood frequently. Based on the PCA, these behaviors were interpreted as “alert” or “hyperactive” states. However, we did not clarify susceptible periods of the photic rhythm loss experience and the psychological development output. In this study we summarize the following studies in our model animal colonies involving 30 animals (11 female, 19 males) to further explore critical age states of inquiry about each social behavior profiling. We compared social behaviors of three age stages, juvenile, adolescent and young adult equivalent to one another in four LL experience conditions, LL (postnatal day (P) 0 to around 150), Middle (P60–149, 90 days), Late (P150–239, 90 days), and LD (no experience). In the most representative 1st and 2nd principal component scores, the shifting to higher frequency of alert behaviors developed at the adult stage in LL, Middle, then Late in turn. The no LL experience group, LD, generally featured higher frequency of local preference of high position compared to LL experience present groups, in adulthood. This limited model primate study might inspire different developmental age sensitive mechanisms of neuronal network to control socio-emotional functions by utilizing the multivariate visualization method, BOUQUET. This study could potentially contribute to nurturing educational designs for social developmental disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number539411
JournalFrontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Feb 2


  • adult expression
  • alert behavior
  • circadian rhythm
  • developmental age
  • multivariate integration
  • principal component analysis
  • social developmental disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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