A simple method for testing the electromigration resistance of solders

M. Saka, T. Kohara, T. Hasegawa, M. Yamashita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, the size of solder bump interconnects have been significantly reduced with the advent of high-density packaging, and thus the evaluation of electromigration in solder bumps has become necessary. The present paper proposes a simple method to test the electromigration resistance of Pb-free solders. One of the key points of the present method is the fabrication of a simple solder sample that can produce sufficient current density to cause electromigration. Moreover, the actual local temperature of a small area subjected to electromigration in the sample was measured by a direct method. A right-angled diamond-shaped hole was introduced in a thin film of solder using a focused-ion-beam system. A direct current was supplied to the film far from the hole, perpendicular to the diagonal of the hole. In this way, the current density was concentrated near to the corner of the hole, and the value of this was obtained through a theoretical analysis. It was noted that the steady temperature in the film along a line extending from the diagonal, remained constant, although the current density decreased gradually far from the corner. Therefore, the temperature at a position near the corner, where electromigration takes place, can easily be found by measuring the temperature far from the corner. The temperature was measured directly under current flow conditions by utilizing the chemical reagents with known melting points. Finally, by measuring the ratio of hillock volume to the time for the current supply as a measure of the atomic flux divergence due to electromigration, the corresponding resistances of some Pb-free solders to electromigration were evaluated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-25
Number of pages9
JournalMicrosystem Technologies
Issue number1 SPEC. ISS.
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Jan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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