TY - JOUR

T1 - A simple formula for calculating porosity of magma in volcanic conduits during dome-forming eruptions

AU - Kozono, Tomofumi

AU - Koyaguchi, Takehiro

N1 - Funding Information:
Acknowledgments. We thank Sebastian Mueller and Wim Degruyter for insightful comments in improving an earlier version of the manuscript. We are grateful to Alain Burgisser and Shigeo Yoshida for helpful reviews and suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (No. 18340130, 21340123) and for Young Scientist (B) (No. 21740322) from MEXT, and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - We present a simple formula for analyzing factors that govern porosity of magma in dome-forming eruptions. The formula is based on a 1-dimensional steady conduit flow model with vertical gas escape, and provides the value of the porosity as a function of magma flow rate, magma properties (viscosity and permeability), and pressure. The porosity for a given pressure depends on two non-dimensional numbers ε and θ. The parameter ε represents the ratio of wall friction force to liquid-gas interaction force, and is proportional to the magma viscosity. The parameter θ represents the ratio of gravitational load to liquid-gas interaction force and is inversely proportional to the magma flow rate. Gas escape is promoted and porosity decreases with increasing ε or θ. From the possible ranges of ε and θ for typical magmatic conditions, it is inferred that the porosity is primarily determined by ε at the atmospheric pressure (near the surface), and by θ at higher pressures (in the subsurface region inside the conduit). The porosity near the surface approaches 0 owing to high magma viscosity regardless of the magnitude of the magma flow rate, whereas the subsurface porosity increases to more than 0.5 with increasing magma flow rate.

AB - We present a simple formula for analyzing factors that govern porosity of magma in dome-forming eruptions. The formula is based on a 1-dimensional steady conduit flow model with vertical gas escape, and provides the value of the porosity as a function of magma flow rate, magma properties (viscosity and permeability), and pressure. The porosity for a given pressure depends on two non-dimensional numbers ε and θ. The parameter ε represents the ratio of wall friction force to liquid-gas interaction force, and is proportional to the magma viscosity. The parameter θ represents the ratio of gravitational load to liquid-gas interaction force and is inversely proportional to the magma flow rate. Gas escape is promoted and porosity decreases with increasing ε or θ. From the possible ranges of ε and θ for typical magmatic conditions, it is inferred that the porosity is primarily determined by ε at the atmospheric pressure (near the surface), and by θ at higher pressures (in the subsurface region inside the conduit). The porosity near the surface approaches 0 owing to high magma viscosity regardless of the magnitude of the magma flow rate, whereas the subsurface porosity increases to more than 0.5 with increasing magma flow rate.

KW - Conduit flow

KW - Dome-forming eruptions

KW - Gas escape from magma

KW - Magma porosity

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U2 - 10.5047/eps.2010.02.005

DO - 10.5047/eps.2010.02.005

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:77955752035

VL - 62

SP - 483

EP - 488

JO - Earth, Planets and Space

JF - Earth, Planets and Space

SN - 1343-8832

IS - 5

ER -