A review of tsunami damage assessment methods and building performance in Thailand

Anawat Suppasri, Shunichi Koshimura, Fumihiko Imamura, Anat Ruangrassamee, Piyawat Foytong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Although the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami occurred several years ago and all the building repair and infrastructure reconstruction needed in Thailand to repair the damage caused by the tsunami are complete, there is still a need for damage assessment methods that can be used in future tsunami damage assessments in Thailand and that can possibly be applied to other countries. This study summarizes three methods for assessing tsunami damage, "tsunami damage criteria," "tsunami damage ratios" and "tsunami fragility curves," based on damage data from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand, and these methods are compared using other tsunami events. Using the data from a field survey of damaged buildings, tsunami damage criteria were summarized for each degree of damage as a function of inundation depth for different building types. Tsunami damage ratios were summarized using building damage data obtained from surveys in the field and reconstruction cost estimates provided by the Thai government. The fragility curves developed were validated based on building performance data obtained from full-scale experiments on buildings and columns. Despite differences in the tsunami characteristics (inundation depth, current velocity and hydrodynamic force), the damage probabilities were nearly the same. The summarized methods might be useful for future tsunami damage assessments and loss estimation in Thailand and serve as guidelines for tsunami damage assessment in other countries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1350036
JournalJournal of Earthquake and Tsunami
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Dec


  • 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
  • building damage
  • damage assessment
  • damage ratio
  • tsunami fragility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Geophysics


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