GATA transcription factor family members GATA1 and GATA2 play crucial roles in the regulation of lineage-restricted genes during erythroid differentiation. GATA1 is indispensable for survival and terminal differentiation of erythroid, megakaryocytic and eosinophilic progenitors, whereas GATA2 regulates proliferation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Expression levels of GATA1 and GATA2 are primarily regulated at the transcriptional level through auto- and reciprocal regulatory networks formed by these GATA factors. The dynamic and strictly controlled change of expression from GATA2 to GATA1 during erythropoiesis has been referred to as GATA factor switching, which plays a crucial role in erythropoiesis. The regulatory network comprising GATA1 and GATA2 gives rise to the stage-specific changes in Gata1 and Gata2 gene expression during erythroid differentiation, which ensures specific expression of early and late erythroid genes at each stage. Recent studies have also shed light on the genome-wide binding profiles of GATA1 and GATA2, and the significance of epigenetic modification of Gata1 gene during erythroid differentiation. This review summarizes the current understanding of network regulation underlying stage-dependent Gata1 and Gata2 gene expressions and the functional contribution of these GATA factors in erythroid differentiation.
- BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome)
- Transgenic mouse
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