A refined model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion resulting in cognitive impairment and a low mortality rate in rats

Ahmed Mansour, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Sherif Rashad, Akira Sumiyoshi, Rie Ryoke, Hidenori Endo, Toshiki Endo, Kenichi Sato, Ryuta Kawashima, Teiji Tominaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE The cognitive deficits of vascular dementia and the vasoocclusive state of moyamoya disease have often been mimicked with bilateral stenosis/occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery. However, the cerebral blood flow (CBF) declines abruptly in these models after ligation of the CCA, which differs from “chronic” cerebral hypoperfusion. While some modified but time-consuming techniques have used staged occlusion of both CCAs, others used microcoils for CCA stenosis, producing an adverse effect on the arterial endothelium. Thus, the authors developed a new chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) model with cognitive impairment and a low mortality rate in rats. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral CCA occlusion and contralateral induction of CCA stenosis (modified CCA occlusion [mCCAO]) or a sham operation. Cortical regional CBF (rCBF) was measured using laser speckle flowmetry. Cognitive function was assessed using a Barnes circular maze (BCM). MRI studies were performed 4 weeks after the operation to evaluate cervical and intracranial arteries and parenchymal injury. Behavioral and histological studies were performed at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. RESULTS The mCCAO group revealed a gradual CBF reduction with a low mortality rate (2.3%). White matter degeneration was evident in the corpus callosum and corpus striatum. Although the cellular density declined in the hippocampus, MRI revealed no cerebral infarctions after mCCAO. Immunohistochemistry revealed upregulated inflammatory cells and angiogenesis in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Results of the BCM assessment indicated significant impairment in spatial learning and memory in the mCCAO group. Although some resolution of white matter injury was observed at 8 weeks, the animals still had cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS The mCCAO is a straightforward method of producing a CCH model in rats. It is associated with a low mortality rate and could potentially be used to investigate vascular disease, moyamoya disease, and CCH. This model was verified for an extended time point of 8 weeks after surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)892-902
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Volume131
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Carotid artery stenosis
  • Cerebral blood flow
  • Cerebral hypoperfusion
  • Moyamoya disease
  • Vascular dementia
  • Vascular disorders
  • White matter injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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