A new set of multi-channel sea surface temperature (MCSST) equations for the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-9 is derived from regression analyses between two-channel brightness temperatures and in situ SST obtained from moored buoys around Japan. Two equations are derived: one for daytime and the other for nighttime. They are linear split window type and both the equations contain a term dependent on satellite zenith angle, which has not been accounted for in the previous daytime split window equations for NOAA-9. It is show that the new set of equation can give SSTs in much better precision than those without the zenith-angle-dependent terms. It is also found that the split window equation for NOAA-9 provided by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration/National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NOAA/NESDIS) considerably underestimates the daytime SSTs; sometimes nighttime SSTs are even higher than daytime SSTs. This is because the zenith angle effect to the radiation deficit is neglected in the daytime equation by NOAA/NESDIS. By using the new MCSST equations. It b expected that the quality of satellite MCSST would be much improved, at least in regional applications around Japan, for the period of NOAA-9's operation.
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