Autophagy mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic contents in the lysosome and plays a significant role in immunity. Lipid second messengers have previously been implicated in the regulation of autophagy. Here, we demonstrate a signaling role for diacylglycerol (DAG) in antibacterial autophagy. DAG production was necessary for efficient autophagy of Salmonella, and its localization to bacteria-containing phagosomes preceded autophagy. The actions of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid phosphatase were required for DAG generation and autophagy. Furthermore, the DAG-responsive δ isoform of protein kinase C was required, as were its downstream targets JNK and NADPH oxidase. Previous studies have revealed a role for the ubiquitin-binding adaptor molecules p62 and NDP52 in autophagy of S. Typhimurium. We observed bacteria-containing autophagosomes colocalizing individually with either DAG or ubiquitinated proteins, indicating that both signals can act independently to promote antibacterial autophagy. These findings reveal an important role for DAG-mediated PKC function in mammalian antibacterial autophagy.
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