Detailed knowledge of light interactions between the atmosphere and vegetation, and within vegetation are of particular interest for terrestrial carbon cycle studies and optical remote sensing. This study describes a model for 3-D canopy radiative transfer that is directly coupled with an atmospheric radiative transfer model (Forest Light Environmental Simulator, FLiES). The model was developed based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method using some existing modeling frameworks. To integrate the canopy radiative transfer model with atmosphere, the same numerical method, sampling technique, and variance reduction technique were employed in both the atmospheric and the canopy modules. Farquhar's leaf photosynthesis model was combined to calculate the canopy level photosynthesis from the light environmental parameters obtained by the radiative transfer calculation. In order to document the quality of the coupled model, we first compared the atmospheric radiative transfer module to well known 1-D atmospheric radiative transfer models, and then evaluated the 3-D canopy radiative transfer module against a series of test cases provided by the RAMI On-line Model Checker (ROMC). We used the model to show the impact of atmospheric properties and 3-D canopy structure on the directionality of downward photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at the top of canopy, the 3-D distribution of absorbed PAR (APAR), and overall canopy photosynthesis. The results indicate the importance to consider angular geometry of incident light at TOC and 3-D canopy structure.
- 3-D canopy radiative transfer
- Canopy reflectance
- Monte Carlo method
- Photosynthetically active radiation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Soil Science
- Computers in Earth Sciences