For many diseases, mediation of pathogenesis by nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested. In this study, we explored NO-induced viral pathogenesis with a focus on nucleic acid damage as evidenced by 8-nitroguanosine formation in vivo. Wild-type mice and littermate mice deficient in inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were infected with influenza or Sendai virus. Formation of 8-nitroguanosine in virus-infected lungs was assessed immunohistochemically with an antibody specific for 8-nitroguanosine. Extensive nitration of RNA either treated with peroxynitrite or obtained from cultured RAW 264 cells expressing iNOS was readily detected by this antibody. Strong 8-nitroguanosine immunostaining was evident primarily in the cytosol of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells of virus-infected wild-type mice but not iNOS-deficient mice. This staining colocalized with iNOS immunostaining in the lung. 8-Nitroguanosine staining disappeared after addition of exogenous authentic 8-nitroguanosine during the antibody reaction and after pretreatment of tissues with sodium hydrosulfite, which reduces 8-nitroguanosine to 8-aminoguanosine. NO was generated in excess in lungs of wild-type mice but was eliminated in iNOS-deficient mice after virus infection; this result also correlated well with formation of 8-nitroguanosine and 3-nitrotyrosine. One consequence of the lack of iNOS expression was marked improvement in histopathological changes in the lung and the lethality of the infection without effects on cytokine responses and viral clearance. It is intriguing that 8-nitroguanosine markedly stimulated superoxide generation from cytochrome P450 reductase and iNOS in vitro. The present data constitute a demonstration of 8-nitroguanosine formation in vivo and suggest a potential role for NO-induced nitrative stress in viral pathogenesis.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Publication status||Published - 2003 Jan 21|
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