4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a diffusible product of lipid peroxidation, has been suggested to be a key mediator of oxidative stress-induced cell death. In this study, we partially characterized the mechanism of HNE-mediated cytotoxicity. Incubation of human T lymphoma Jurkat cells with 20-50 μM HNE led to cell death accompanied by DNA fragmentation. Western blot analysis showed that HNE-treatment induced time- and dose-dependent activation of caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3. HNE-induced caspase-3 processing was confirmed by a flow cytometric demonstration of increased catalytic activity on the substrate peptide. HNE treatment also led to remarkable cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which was prevented by pretreatment of cells with DEVD-FMK as a caspase-3 inhibitor. The HNE-mediated activation of caspases, cleavage of PARP and DNA fragmentation were blocked by antioxidants cysteine, N-acety-L-cysteine and dithiothreitol, but not by two other HNE-reactive amino acids lysine and histidine, or by cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine. HNE rapidly decreased levels of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) and its oxidized form GSSG, and these were also attenuated by the reductants. Coincubation of Jurkat cells with a blocking anti-Fas antibody prevented Fas-induced but not HNE-induced activation of caspase-3. HNE also activated caspase-3 in K562 cells that do not express functional Fas. Our results thereby demonstrate that HNE triggers oxidative stress-linked apoptotic cell death through activation of the caspase cascade. The results also suggest a possible mechanism involving a direct scavenge of intracellular GSH by HNE.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of cell science|
|Publication status||Published - 2000|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology