3D-LSI technology for image sensor

Makoto Motoyoshi, Mitsumasa Koyanagi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, the development of three-dimensional large-scale integration (3D-LSI) technologies has accelerated and has advanced from the research level or the limited production level to the investigation level, which might lead to mass production. By separating 3D-LSI technology into elementary technologies such as (1) through silicon via (TSV) formation, (2) bump formation, (3) wafer thinning, (4) chip/wafer alignment, and (5) chip/wafer stacking and reconstructing the entire process and structure, many methods to realize 3D-LSI devices can be developed. However, by considering a specific application, the supply chain of base wafers, and the purpose of 3D integration, a few suitable combinations can be identified. In this paper, we focus on the application of 3D-LSI technologies to image sensors. We describe the process and structure of the chip size package (CSP), developed on the basis of current and advanced 3D-LSI technologies, to be used in CMOS image sensors. Using the current LSI technologies, CSPs for 1.3 M, 2 M, and 5 M pixel CMOS image sensors were successfully fabricated without any performance degradation. 3D-LSI devices can be potentially employed in high-performance focal-plane-array image sensors. We propose a high-speed image sensor with an optical fill factor of 100% to be developed using next-generation 3D-LSI technology and fabricated using micro(μ)-bumps and micro(μ)-TSVs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberP03009
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • HPDs, others)
  • Manufacturing
  • Photon detectors for UV
  • Visible and IR photons (vacuum) (photomultipliers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mathematical Physics
  • Instrumentation


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