3D integration technology and reliability

Mitsumasa Koyanagi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

18 Citations (Scopus)


Three-dimensional (3D) integration technologies including a new 3D heterogeneous integration of super-chip are described. In addition, reliability issues in these 3D LSIs such as mechanical stresses induced by through-silicon vias (TSVs) and metal microbumps and Cu contamination in thinned wafers are discussed. Cu TSVs with the diameter of 20μm induced the maximum compressive stress of ∼1 GPa at the silicon substrate adjacent to them after annealed at 300°C for 30 min. Mechanical strain/stress and crystal defects were produced in extremely thin wafers (thickness ∼10μm) of 3D LSIs not only during wafer thinning, but also after wafer bonding using fine-pitch, high-density metal microbumps and curing. The influence of Cu contamination at the back surface of the thinned wafer has been evaluated by C-t analysis. C-t curves measured in MOS capacitors without IG layer and EG layer were seriously degraded after annealing even at 200°C whereas the C-t curves exhibited only a little change even after annealing up to 350 min at 300°C. It was revealed that the generation lifetime of minority carrier is significantly reduced by the Cu contamination.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2011 International Reliability Physics Symposium, IRPS 2011
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Jun 23
Event49th International Reliability Physics Symposium, IRPS 2011 - Monterey, CA, United States
Duration: 2011 Apr 102011 Apr 14

Publication series

NameIEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings
ISSN (Print)1541-7026


Other49th International Reliability Physics Symposium, IRPS 2011
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityMonterey, CA


  • 3D LSI
  • Cu contamination
  • Mechanical stress
  • Microbump
  • TSV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


Dive into the research topics of '3D integration technology and reliability'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this