Recently, tocotrienol (T3), a less well-known form of vitamin E, has gained considerable attention as a potent antiangiogenic agent. However, the majority of vitamin E research has focused on tocopherol (Toe), with some studies indicating α-Toc may prevent tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to clarify the differences in antiangiogenic potential between δ-T3 and α-Toc. We showed δ-T3 (2.5-5 μM) completely abolished proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), whereas a similar dose of α-Toc had no such effects. (δ-T3 suppressed VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) signaling, and activated caspases in HUVECs. In addition, via an in vivo mouse Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay, we found that δ-T3 (30 μg), but not α-Toc, inhibited tumor cell-induced vessel formation. In summary, our results demonstrate δ-T3 has superior antiangiogenic activities to α-Toc, and provide insights into the different mechanisms responsible for this effect of T3 and Toe.
- Endothelial cell
- Vitamin e
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)