β-Galactosidase therapy can mitigate blood galactose elevation after an oral lactose load in galactose mutarotase deficiency

Yoichi Wada, Natsuko Arai-Ichinoi, Atsuo Kikuchi, Shigeo Kure

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Galactose mutarotase (GALM) deficiency (MIM# 618881), also known as type IV galactosemia, is caused by biallelic pathogenic variants of GALM. Cataracts are observed in patients with GALM deficiency as well as in other conditions associated with high levels of blood galactose and can be prevented by consuming a galactose-restricted diet or formula. Galactose restriction is the only known treatment for GALM deficiency and other types of galactosemia. We incidentally found that β-galactosidase might reduce blood galactose levels caused by lactose loading in GALM deficiency. Consequently, we investigated the effectiveness of β-galactosidase in decreasing the level of blood galactose in three patients with GALM deficiency. We performed two lactose loading tests per case: one with and one without β-galactosidase. The add-on administration of β-galactosidase significantly mitigated blood galactose elevations after lactose loading. Although urine galactitol was mildly elevated in all patients with GALM deficiency, β-galactosidase did not prevent increased levels of urine galactitol during the loading tests. No adverse events, including cataracts, were observed during or after the tests. Therefore, β-galactosidase could be a potential novel treatment agent for blood galactose elevation caused by lactose in patients with GALM deficiency. The effectiveness of β-galactosidase could possibly result in loosening of the galactose dietary restrictions or treatment for patients with GALM deficiency.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • galactose mutarotase
  • GALM
  • GALM deficiency
  • type IV galactosemia
  • β-Galactosidase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

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